Artificial Intelligence-driven Technologies in Agriculture
Soil degradation, lack of assured irrigation, overuse/misuse fertilizer and pesticides, availability of capital for farmers, inadequate demand prediction, unorganized and low-tech practices are some of the current challenges prevalent in the agricultural sector which can greatly benefit from Artificial intelligence -driven intelligent solutions that enable smarter production, processing, storage, distribution and consumptions of farm products. Timely and site-specific data about crops facilitates the application of appropriate inputs on chemicals and fertilizers, crop health and disease, spreads, monitoring health of farm animals, and intelligent farm mechanization through autonomous machines. Artificial intelligence comes as a great boon to the agricultural sector which is slowly but surely making its presence in agricultural sector. Artificial intelligence-based technologies applications in agriculture are used by various companies. This article has been prepared to make it as informative as possible with some details of companies involved in application of Artificial intelligence-driven techniques and tools employed in agriculture sector.
Single Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
An emerging technique for metal content analysis in single cells
Source: LCGC WEBCASTS
World Congress on Advances in Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques
New Orleans, USA
July 02-03, 2018
World Biotechnology Congress 2018 is going to be held in Berlin, Germany during July 16-17, 2018
A New Era in Molecular Biology: CRISPR/Cas9 and Targeted Genome Editing
The development of efficient and reliable ways to make precise, targeted changes to the genome of living cells is a long-standing goal for biomedical researchers. Recently, a new tool based on a bacterial CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) from Streptococcus pyogenes has generated considerable excitement. This follows several attempts over the years to manipulate gene function, including homologous recombination and RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi became a laboratory staple enabling inexpensive and high-throughput interrogation of gene function but it is hampered by providing only temporary inhibition of gene function and unpredictable off-target effects. Other recent approaches to targeted genome modification – zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), and transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) enable researchers to generate permanent mutations by introducing doublestranded breaks to activate repair pathways. These approaches are costly and time-consuming to engineer, limiting their widespread use, particularly for large scale, high-throughput studies
The functions of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes are essential in adaptive immunity in select bacteria and archaea, enabling the organisms to respond to and eliminate invading genetic material. These repeats were initially discovered in the 1980s in E. coli, but their function wasn’t confirmed until 2007 by Barrangou and colleagues, who demonstrated that S. thermophilus can acquire resistance against a bacteriophage by integrating a genome fragment of an infectious virus into its CRISPR locus. Three types of CRISPR mechanisms have been identified, of which type II is the most studied. In this case, invading DNA from viruses or plasmids is cut into small fragments and incorporated into a CRISPR locus amidst a series of short repeats (around 20 bps). The loci are transcribed, and transcripts are then processed to generate small RNAs (crRNA – CRISPR RNA), which are used to guide effector endonucleases that target invading DNA based on sequence complementarity.
Multi-functional Super-coating Technology
The Korea Institute of Industrial Technology announced that it has developed a multi-functional super-coating technology using a nanocomposite structure. The research team made a nano-sized composite structure by mixing the crystal particles and amorphous particles in an ultra-high-temperature plasma state. This newly developed super coating film with nanocomposite structure is very effective against abrasion, heat, corrosion, and oxidation depending on the mixing method. The research team has done this research for over two years. Professor Park said, “Coating technology was originally developed to make fighter jet parts, but it is a high-value source technology that can be applied throughout machine parts.”
Drinking water may contribute significantly to oral intake in regions where there are high arsenic concentrations in well-water or river-water or mine drainage areas. The concentration in ground water depends on the arsenic content of the bed-rock. Arsenic contamination is spreading fast and entering the food chain through farm products in the region. As people take contaminated water along with contaminated food, the chances of damage become greater. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely. It is usually dominated by changes in the skin and mucous membranes and by neurological, vascular and haematogical lesions. Arsenic and its inorganic compounds have been known to be neurotoxic. The skin is a common critical organ in people exposed to inorganic arsenical compounds. Eczematoid symptoms develop with varying degrees of severity. Hyperkerotosis, warts and melanosis of the skin are the most commonly observed lesions in chronic exposure. Arsenic contamination in water, vegetables, rice and other foods is spreading as reported in the Indian Parliament. An editorial report was published in the Hindustan Times dated 27th December, 2017.