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Arsenic Contamination in Water

Drinking water may contribute significantly to oral intake in regions where there are high arsenic concentrations in well-water or river-water or mine drainage areas. The concentration in ground water depends on the arsenic content of the bed-rock. Arsenic contamination is spreading fast and entering the food chain through farm products in the region. As people take contaminated water along with contaminated food, the chances of damage become greater. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely. It is usually dominated by changes in the skin and mucous membranes and by neurological, vascular and haematogical lesions. Arsenic and its inorganic compounds have been known to be neurotoxic. The skin is a common critical organ in people exposed to inorganic arsenical compounds. Eczematoid symptoms develop with varying degrees of severity.  Hyperkerotosis, warts and melanosis of the skin are the most commonly observed lesions in chronic exposure. Arsenic contamination in water, vegetables, rice and other foods is spreading as reported in the Indian Parliament. An editorial report was published in the Hindustan Times dated 27th December, 2017.

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Arsenic

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Nanotechnology: Characterization of Nanomaterials using Single-Particle ICP-MS

via Nanotechnology: Characterization of Nanomaterials using Single-Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

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DNA Metabarcoding: A Rapid Method for Biodiversity Assessment

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DNA metabarcoding refers to the automated identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample containing entire organisms. This offers unprecedented scientific and operation opportunities in order to understand biodiversity distribution and dynamics in a better way. Managing the health of global ecosystems requires detailed inventories of species and a good understanding of the patterns and trends of biodiversity. Evolutionary and ecological studies often rely on our ability to identify the species involved in the process under investigation or our capacity to provide robust biodiversity estimates. For about three centuries, the acquisition of biodiversity data was based on morphological characterization of plants and animals. The idea of identifying species on the basis of molecular markers emerged soon after the advent of molecular biology. Early methods involved the use of hybridization, restriction enzyme digestion or other molecular probes. DNA-based species identification was introduced by Arnot et al. and further development, standardized and advanced by Hebert et al. The ability to extract and store DNA for prolonged periods of time provides a unique opportunity to assess the evolution of biodiversity over time in relation to global change and to develop concrete measures to reserve these features. For more details, please click here.
DNA Metabarcoding

Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm

This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology and the effects of nanoparticles on agricultural systems, their interactions with plants as well as their potential applications as fertilizers and pesticides. It also discusses how innovative, eco-friendly approaches to improve food and agricultural systems lead to increased plant productivity. Further, it offers insights into the current trends and future prospects of nanotechnology along with the benefits and risks and their impact on agricultural ecosystems. contentNanomaterials in agriculture reduce the amount of chemical products sprayed by means of smart delivery of active ingredients; minimize nutrient losses in fertilization; and increase yields through optimized water and nutrient management. There is also huge potential for nanotechnology in the provision of state-of-the-art solutions for various challenges faced by agriculture and society, both today and in the future.

Chapter 12

Nanotechnology for Enhancing Crop Productivity

Suresh Kaushik and S.R. Djiwanti

Agriculture is currently facing a number of challenges like low nutrient use efficiency, stagnation in crop yields, multi-nutrient deficiencies, climate change, and water availability. One of the frontier technologies like nanotechnology can be explored to detect precisely and supply the accurate quantity of plant nutrients and pesticides to enhance crop productivity in agriculture. Nanotechnology involves the designing, production, characterization and application of devices, structures, and systems by controlling the size and shape at nanometer scale. Nanotechnology using nanodevices and nanomaterials provides new avenues for potential novel applications in agriculture such as efficient delivery of pesticide and fertilizer using nanomaterial-based formulations such as nano-fertilizers, nano-pesticides, and nano-herbicides. New innovative smart delivery systems and sensitive nano-biosensor-based technology have great potential to solve the problems faced in crop production. This chapter summarizes some new developments in smart delivery systems and nano biosensor-based technology for enhancing crop productivity.

Genetic Improvements of traits for enhancing NPK Acquisition and Utilization Efficiency in Plants

Book title: Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency: Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants

Editors: Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Takehiro Kamiya, David J. Burrit, Lam-Son Phan Tran and Toru Fujiwara

Publisher: Academic Press, Elsevier

Mybook

Genetic Improvements of traits for enhancing NPK Acquisition and Utilization Efficiency in Plants

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry : A Rapid Technique for Multi-Elements Determination at the Ultra-Trace Level

 

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Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part per trillion. ICP-MS is undoubtedly the fastest growing trace element technique available today. It allows determination of elements with atomic mass ranges 7 to 250. It is able to detect the elements upto part per trillion levels and this ability to carry out rapid multi-elements  determination at the ultra-trace level  have made it very popular in diverse range of applications areas  including environment, geochemical, semiconductor, metallurgical, nuclear, chemical, climatic and biotechnology. In recent years, industrial and biological monitoring has presented major need for metal analysis by ICP-MS. Other uses is in the medical and forensic field, specifically, toxicology and heavy metal poisoning.

For basics of ICP-MS working, please click on the following link…..

https://wordpress.com/page/gingerfingers.wordpress.com/438

 

Arsenic and its Effects on Human Health

Arsenic has different toxicological properties dependent upon both its oxidation state for inorganic compounds as well as the different toxicity levels exhibited for organic arsenic compounds. As a consequence of the many different uses of arsenic and arsenicals, there is wide spectrum of situation in which human may be exposed to the element. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely.

https://wordpress.com/page/gingerfingers.wordpress.com/415

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The “Hindu” in view of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the second President of India from 1962 to 1967

The term “Hindu” as explained by Dr.S. Radhakrishnan in his famous book entitled ” The Hindu view of Life”. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan was an Indian philosopher and statesman. He was the second President of India from 1962 and 1967.

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Opening Black Box of Soil Microbial Diversity through Molecular Techniques

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Biodiversity is generally defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecosystems in which this occurs. The variability of life in the soil encompasses not only plants and animals but also the invertebrates and microorganisms that are interdependent on one another and the higher plants they support. Biodiversity is composed of three interrelated elements: genetic, functional and taxonomic diversity as shown in Figure 1. Taxonomic diversity i.e. the number of species forms an important part of an ecosystem’s diversity and is controlled by the genetic diversity. Genetic diversity can be much more than the number of recognized species. Hence, several species may have the same functions, resulting in functional redundancy. Some species may also interact to perform functions not possible by any single species. Therefore, biodiversity is the interaction of all these elements.

Soil biodiversity is more extensive than any other environment on the globe when all living forms are considered. The soil biota contains representations of all groups of microorganisms, fungi, bacteria, algae and viruses, as well as the microfauna such as protozoa and nematodes. The total diversity is equal to greater than any coral reef or rain forest. Soil algae and protozoa, like higher plants and animals, can be identified by their morphology. Fungi and bacteria, however, require more extensive biochemical and genetic analysis to enable identification.

It has been estimated that only between 1 and 5% of all microorganisms on the earth have been named and classified. A large proportion of these unknown species is thought to reside in the soil. The possible numbers of existing species of different groups are 1.5 million species of fungi, 300,000 species of bacteria, 400,000 species of nematodes and 40,000 species of protozoa. New molecular techniques have been used to estimate that single gram of soil probably contains several thousand bacterial species.

 Opening Black Box of Soil Microbial Diversity through Molecular Techniques

 

 

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