Crop Pests and diseases, and post harvest pests have significant impact on agricultural yield loss and farmers’ incomes. Farmers mostly use synthetic pesticides to manage pests to maximize crop yields; posing potential risks for workers, consumers and the environments. Nanopesticides based on metal and essential oils, agrochemical control release formulation hold promise as less toxic pesticide and excellent alternative to conventional pesticide in plant pest and disease control. Nanoparticles and nanoemulsions of metals, nanoemulsion of essential oils, and matrixs of delivery agents/ carrier in nano pesticide formulations; have been synthesized and their effectiveness assessed against plant pest insect and disease pathogen; and other aspects in plant protection. This review discuss the main research of nanomaterials that have been applied and highlights nanoformulation technologies to be considered for their continuing development of nanopesticides from point of view of plant protection.
The chapter has been published in the book ‘Plant Nanobionics: Volume 2, Approaches in Nanoparticles, Biosynthesis and Toxicity” edited by Dr. Ram Prasad and published by Springer Nature.
When growing crops of any type, it’s important to understand the required inputs in order to receive the desired yields. One of these inputs, arguably the most important and critical one, revolves around nutrient management. All plants have these requirements, whether it be crops grown for biofuels, fruit production, or landscape ornamentals. Each plant needs […]
Soil degradation, lack of assured irrigation, overuse/misuse fertilizer and pesticides, availability of capital for farmers, inadequate demand prediction, unorganized and low-tech practices are some of the current challenges prevalent in the agricultural sector which can greatly benefit from Artificial intelligence -driven intelligent solutions that enable smarter production, processing, storage, distribution and consumptions of farm products. Timely and site-specific data about crops facilitates the application of appropriate inputs on chemicals and fertilizers, crop health and disease, spreads, monitoring health of farm animals, and intelligent farm mechanization through autonomous machines. Artificial intelligence comes as a great boon to the agricultural sector which is slowly but surely making its presence in agricultural sector. Artificial intelligence-based technologies applications in agriculture are used by various companies. This article has been prepared to make it as informative as possible with some details of companies involved in application of Artificial intelligence-driven techniques and tools employed in agriculture sector.
Drinking water may contribute significantly to oral intake in regions where there are high arsenic concentrations in well-water or river-water or mine drainage areas. The concentration in ground water depends on the arsenic content of the bed-rock. Arsenic contamination is spreading fast and entering the food chain through farm products in the region. As people take contaminated water along with contaminated food, the chances of damage become greater. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely. It is usually dominated by changes in the skin and mucous membranes and by neurological, vascular and haematogical lesions. Arsenic and its inorganic compounds have been known to be neurotoxic. The skin is a common critical organ in people exposed to inorganic arsenical compounds. Eczematoid symptoms develop with varying degrees of severity. Hyperkerotosis, warts and melanosis of the skin are the most commonly observed lesions in chronic exposure. Arsenic contamination in water, vegetables, rice and other foods is spreading as reported in the Indian Parliament. An editorial report was published in the Hindustan Times dated 27th December, 2017.
This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology and the effects of nanoparticles on agricultural systems, their interactions with plants as well as their potential applications as fertilizers and pesticides. It also discusses how innovative, eco-friendly approaches to improve food and agricultural systems lead to increased plant productivity. Further, it offers insights into the current trends and future prospects of nanotechnology along with the benefits and risks and their impact on agricultural ecosystems. Nanomaterials in agriculture reduce the amount of chemical products sprayed by means of smart delivery of active ingredients; minimize nutrient losses in fertilization; and increase yields through optimized water and nutrient management. There is also huge potential for nanotechnology in the provision of state-of-the-art solutions for various challenges faced by agriculture and society, both today and in the future.
Nanotechnology for Enhancing Crop Productivity
Suresh Kaushik and S.R. Djiwanti
Agriculture is currently facing a number of challenges like low nutrient use efficiency, stagnation in crop yields, multi-nutrient deficiencies, climate change, and water availability. One of the frontier technologies like nanotechnology can be explored to detect precisely and supply the accurate quantity of plant nutrients and pesticides to enhance crop productivity in agriculture. Nanotechnology involves the designing, production, characterization and application of devices, structures, and systems by controlling the size and shape at nanometer scale. Nanotechnology using nanodevices and nanomaterials provides new avenues for potential novel applications in agriculture such as efficient delivery of pesticide and fertilizer using nanomaterial-based formulations such as nano-fertilizers, nano-pesticides, and nano-herbicides. New innovative smart delivery systems and sensitive nano-biosensor-based technology have great potential to solve the problems faced in crop production. This chapter summarizes some new developments in smart delivery systems and nano biosensor-based technology for enhancing crop productivity.
Book title: Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency: Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants
Editors: Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Takehiro Kamiya, David J. Burrit, Lam-Son Phan Tran and Toru Fujiwara
Publisher: Academic Press, Elsevier
Biodiversity is generally defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecosystems in which this occurs. The variability of life in the soil encompasses not only plants and animals but also the invertebrates and microorganisms that are interdependent on one another and the higher plants they support. Biodiversity is composed of three interrelated elements: genetic, functional and taxonomic diversity as shown in Figure 1. Taxonomic diversity i.e. the number of species forms an important part of an ecosystem’s diversity and is controlled by the genetic diversity. Genetic diversity can be much more than the number of recognized species. Hence, several species may have the same functions, resulting in functional redundancy. Some species may also interact to perform functions not possible by any single species. Therefore, biodiversity is the interaction of all these elements.
Soil biodiversity is more extensive than any other environment on the globe when all living forms are considered. The soil biota contains representations of all groups of microorganisms, fungi, bacteria, algae and viruses, as well as the microfauna such as protozoa and nematodes. The total diversity is equal to greater than any coral reef or rain forest. Soil algae and protozoa, like higher plants and animals, can be identified by their morphology. Fungi and bacteria, however, require more extensive biochemical and genetic analysis to enable identification.
It has been estimated that only between 1 and 5% of all microorganisms on the earth have been named and classified. A large proportion of these unknown species is thought to reside in the soil. The possible numbers of existing species of different groups are 1.5 million species of fungi, 300,000 species of bacteria, 400,000 species of nematodes and 40,000 species of protozoa. New molecular techniques have been used to estimate that single gram of soil probably contains several thousand bacterial species.
Improvement of micronutrient acquisition in area where micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu & Mn) deficiency in soils limits crop productivity is probably the most challenging and rewarding areas of research to achieve the sustainable productivity of agricultural crops. Progress made in recombinant DNA technology in recent years and the application of molecular techniques has advanced our understanding in unraveling the mechanisms of acquisition of micronutrients by the plants from less-labile of soil pools and role of genes involved in these processes, and have provided an altogether new dimension to agricultural research.