Drinking water may contribute significantly to oral intake in regions where there are high arsenic concentrations in well-water or river-water or mine drainage areas. The concentration in ground water depends on the arsenic content of the bed-rock. Arsenic contamination is spreading fast and entering the food chain through farm products in the region. As people take contaminated water along with contaminated food, the chances of damage become greater. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely. It is usually dominated by changes in the skin and mucous membranes and by neurological, vascular and haematogical lesions. Arsenic and its inorganic compounds have been known to be neurotoxic. The skin is a common critical organ in people exposed to inorganic arsenical compounds. Eczematoid symptoms develop with varying degrees of severity. Hyperkerotosis, warts and melanosis of the skin are the most commonly observed lesions in chronic exposure. Arsenic contamination in water, vegetables, rice and other foods is spreading as reported in the Indian Parliament. An editorial report was published in the Hindustan Times dated 27th December, 2017.
This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology and the effects of nanoparticles on agricultural systems, their interactions with plants as well as their potential applications as fertilizers and pesticides. It also discusses how innovative, eco-friendly approaches to improve food and agricultural systems lead to increased plant productivity. Further, it offers insights into the current trends and future prospects of nanotechnology along with the benefits and risks and their impact on agricultural ecosystems. Nanomaterials in agriculture reduce the amount of chemical products sprayed by means of smart delivery of active ingredients; minimize nutrient losses in fertilization; and increase yields through optimized water and nutrient management. There is also huge potential for nanotechnology in the provision of state-of-the-art solutions for various challenges faced by agriculture and society, both today and in the future.
Nanotechnology for Enhancing Crop Productivity
Suresh Kaushik and S.R. Djiwanti
Agriculture is currently facing a number of challenges like low nutrient use efficiency, stagnation in crop yields, multi-nutrient deficiencies, climate change, and water availability. One of the frontier technologies like nanotechnology can be explored to detect precisely and supply the accurate quantity of plant nutrients and pesticides to enhance crop productivity in agriculture. Nanotechnology involves the designing, production, characterization and application of devices, structures, and systems by controlling the size and shape at nanometer scale. Nanotechnology using nanodevices and nanomaterials provides new avenues for potential novel applications in agriculture such as efficient delivery of pesticide and fertilizer using nanomaterial-based formulations such as nano-fertilizers, nano-pesticides, and nano-herbicides. New innovative smart delivery systems and sensitive nano-biosensor-based technology have great potential to solve the problems faced in crop production. This chapter summarizes some new developments in smart delivery systems and nano biosensor-based technology for enhancing crop productivity.
Book title: Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency: Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants
Editors: Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Takehiro Kamiya, David J. Burrit, Lam-Son Phan Tran and Toru Fujiwara
Publisher: Academic Press, Elsevier
The term “Hindu” as explained by Dr.S. Radhakrishnan in his famous book entitled ” The Hindu view of Life”. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan was an Indian philosopher and statesman. He was the second President of India from 1962 and 1967.
The Prime Minster of India, Shri Narendra Modi on 8th November, 2016 (Tuesday) announced that the Rs 500 and 1,000 notes will be invalid from the midnight. This means the new Rs 500 and Rs 2,000 notes would be in circulation and as per the RBI the same would be out by November 10th. It is because there are lot of fake 500 and 1000 currency notes in the market and it is causing endless problems for RBI to confiscate all of them. The best way is to introduce a new currency denomination which is difficult to create replicas. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will be issuing Rs 2,000 currency notes, the highest to come into circulation. This was supposed to be one of the biggest news for banking sector, financial institutions and the common man – because it involved India’s largest currency denomination, Rs 2000. In 1938, and then again in 1954, then Governments introduced currency denomination of Rs 10,000 which was later put out of circulation in 1946 and 1978 respectively. If we leave aside Rs 10,000 currency, then Rs 2000 would be the largest denomination in the history of India. Soon after reports emerged that Rs 2000 currency notes would be introduced by RBI, another set of rumors emerged that these notes would be embedded with nano-GPS chips which can be traced all over the world.
Rumor only, no confirmation from GOI till now.
The Rs 2000 currency might be designed keeping in mind to eradicate the black money issues using state of the art indigenous nanotechnology, every Rs. 2000 currency note will be embedded with a NGC (Nano GPS Chip). The unique feature of the NGC is that it doesn’t need any power source. It only acts as a signal reflector. When a Satellite sends a signal requesting location the NGC reflects back the signal from the location, giving precise location coordinates, and the serial number of the currency back to the satellite, this way every NGC embedded currency can be easily tracked & located even if it is kept 120 meters below ground level. The NGC can’t be tampered with or removed without damaging the currency note. Since every NGC embedded currency can be tracked. The satellite can identify the exact amount of money stored at a certain location. If a relatively high concentration of currency is found a certain location for a longer period of time at suspicious locations other than banks & other financial institutions. The information will be passed on to the Income Tax Department for further investigation and action. As the new notes are loaded with nano-GPS chips (NGC) which will enable the Govt. to easily track these notes, hence controlling black money transactions. NGC chips are actually ‘signal-reflectors’ which would help satellites to track the location of the notes – even if they are ‘120 meters’ below ground level. The logic is that, the satellites will track heavy accumulation of such NGC enabled notes, and will take immediate action to track and seize such money (assuming they are black money).