Crop Pests and diseases, and post harvest pests have significant impact on agricultural yield loss and farmers’ incomes. Farmers mostly use synthetic pesticides to manage pests to maximize crop yields; posing potential risks for workers, consumers and the environments. Nanopesticides based on metal and essential oils, agrochemical control release formulation hold promise as less toxic pesticide and excellent alternative to conventional pesticide in plant pest and disease control. Nanoparticles and nanoemulsions of metals, nanoemulsion of essential oils, and matrixs of delivery agents/ carrier in nano pesticide formulations; have been synthesized and their effectiveness assessed against plant pest insect and disease pathogen; and other aspects in plant protection. This review discuss the main research of nanomaterials that have been applied and highlights nanoformulation technologies to be considered for their continuing development of nanopesticides from point of view of plant protection.
The chapter has been published in the book ‘Plant Nanobionics: Volume 2, Approaches in Nanoparticles, Biosynthesis and Toxicity” edited by Dr. Ram Prasad and published by Springer Nature.
Single-Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Engineered Nanoparticles
With the rapid development of nanotechnology, consumer products containing metallic engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are commonly available in the market. These particles subsequently are released into the environment, and uptake of these materials by human is very likely. Methods for detecting, quantifying, and characterizing these materials in complex matrices are critical for the eventual understanding of their implications to human health and environment. To assess their effect on the body, reliable and fast detection of these nanoparticles in very low amount becomes increasingly important. Single-particle ICP-MS has emerged (spICP-MS) as a useful tool for characterization of metal-containing nanoparticles. This technique is reliable and fast for counting and sizing particles at lowest concentrations while simultaneously distinguishing between dissolved and particulate analytes.
The chapter describing about this technique has been published in the book “Microbial Nanobionics” volume 2 Basic Research and Applications edited by Dr. Ram Prasad.
Drinking water may contribute significantly to oral intake in regions where there are high arsenic concentrations in well-water or river-water or mine drainage areas. The concentration in ground water depends on the arsenic content of the bed-rock. Arsenic contamination is spreading fast and entering the food chain through farm products in the region. As people take contaminated water along with contaminated food, the chances of damage become greater. The clinical picture of chronic poisoning with arsenic varies widely. It is usually dominated by changes in the skin and mucous membranes and by neurological, vascular and haematogical lesions. Arsenic and its inorganic compounds have been known to be neurotoxic. The skin is a common critical organ in people exposed to inorganic arsenical compounds. Eczematoid symptoms develop with varying degrees of severity. Hyperkerotosis, warts and melanosis of the skin are the most commonly observed lesions in chronic exposure. Arsenic contamination in water, vegetables, rice and other foods is spreading as reported in the Indian Parliament. An editorial report was published in the Hindustan Times dated 27th December, 2017.
Arsenic Speciation Analysis using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
Speciation is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring in a sample the quantity of one or more individual chemical species. Arsenic has different toxicological properties dependent upon both its oxidation state for inorganic compounds as well as the different toxicity levels exhibited for organic arsenic compounds. HPLC is the technique of choice in modern speciation analyses due to their resolution and the ease with which they are coupled to ICP-MS, allowing for on-line separation and detection.